Saturday, August 22, 2020
Arabic - Essay Example Further, the substance of the media are generously decided, by the way of life; culture illuminates the convictions and information load of individuals. Consequently, the media ought to consider issues that are pertinent to the way of life that the media speak to. Social convictions and social standards impact the structure and operations,Ã¢ and the piece of the media. The social, strict and policy centered issues characteristic in the Arabic countries and the Arabic culture outweigh everything else in the media while the remainder of the issues from different societies are pressed in the remainder of the existence. During the 1990s, the legislatures in the Arab World claimed most TVs channels. Satellite TVs are growing quickly. This isn't because of the right to speak freely of discourse and cash yet because of political effect on their development. The West has likewise impacted the development of Arabian media through the Arab dramas (Hammond 26). In 2003, Star Academy started when Reality TV had entered the Arabic open talk. That was when ladies battled for their political rights in Kuwait; political race results were challenged in Egypt and there emitted heightening brutality in Iraq. The political emergency condition encircled the present Arab-Western relations. It shaped the setting that causes discussions encompassing the social and political effect of Reality TV that accept strict, social and good signs (Hammond 28). Research in Media has focused on that the good and social duty of news individuals ought not shake general assessment, however should keep the norm. It is foremost to save national solidarity by not causing ethnic or strict clash. Analytical reporting was not permitted in the Arab World because of constrained ability to speak freely. Individual notoriety is a major standard in Arab media; presentation of defilement and shortcomings in arrangement producers hold the news individual in
Posted by Fabian Schmitz at 11:30 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
The improvement of proposals for best practices in Value-Chain Integration for UK Financial Services associations embracing Business Process Outsourcing - Essay Example ater pressures on edges which, thus, drive the requirement for improved operational efficiencies; second, the need to pull together on center skills so as to improve seriousness and third, developing quantities of effectively accessible and proficient expert suppliers. Added to this is the way that mechanical advances currently make it simpler for business to be led across numerous areas and associations. It ought to be noticed that organizations are continually reconsidering their key activities and the meaning of center and non-center is subsequently in a condition of transition. What is seen as center today won't really be seen as center tomorrow. Certain center exercises can be redistributed if there is extensive change sought after that doesn't legitimize full time increment in head check. The choices on re-appropriating are commonly vital. Deming (1982, refered to by Odindo et al, 2004) informed organizations to lessen the number concerning providers. Less providers with long haul duties can improve a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activity. Ã¢â¬Å"Not managing numerous organizations assists with limiting the complexities and costs that may result from irregularities and assortment when more than one specialist organization is usedÃ¢â¬ (Odindo et al, 2004). At times organizations redistribute to their rivals when the main competency to serve them is found in contenders. Odindo et al (2004) have additionally called attention to that redistributing can be utilized to bridle development and ability past the bounds of an organization. It is difficult or for the most part feasible for an association to have all the ability required for the organization to advance. Utilizing redistributing suppliers gives an organization access to the providerÃ¢â¬â¢s creative capacities. The very idea of the money related administrations business implies that organizations are appropriate possibility for re-appropriating and many have become exceptionally refined clients of these administrations. Monetary administrations organizations have less connections to a specific geographic area than different organizations and just a little
Posted by Fabian Schmitz at 11:15 PM
Emotional wellness Refore: What It Would Really Take Essay Emotional wellness Reform: What It Would Really Take In todays society there is a more noteworthy consciousness of psychological maladjustments. With this more noteworthy mindfulness one may expect that there would be a significant increment in government contribution or financing in the zone of psychological sickness treatment. Lamentably this isnt the case in the U.S. today. There are a huge number of individuals with psychological instability that go untreated. These potential patients go untreated for some reasons. These reasons are talked about in the Time article Mental Health Reform: What Would it Really Take. The article gives a few instances of what has happened to individuals that have not gotten mental treatment because of absence of government financing. These intellectually sick individuals regularly dont get treatment in light of the fact that the police are frequently getting the intellectually sick and they are not prepared to analyze mental issues so the issues go unnoticed. This can end up being lethal. The article tells about a New York man who requested to be hospitalized in light of the fact that he was unnerved of apparition voices rather than the right treatment frugal authorities frequently alluded him to transient crisis care. A year ago the man in an insane state pushed a lady from a tram stage to her demise under the wheels of the train. The article additionally examines some potential arrangements that could help stop such disasters. The fundamental individual that is standing up for greater government help is VPs spouse Tipper Gore. Tipper transparently expresses that she also has experienced psychological maladjustment. She says that she had languished with sadness over a timeframe. She is pushing an expansion in government financing to improve access to think about others. She would likewise like businesses to help by giving equivalent protection inclusion to mental and physical wellbeing. As of now protection plans can charge higher co-installments for psychaitric visits than for other clinical consideration. I feel that regardless of whether the proposition become law its solitary the initial step to fixing this issue. The article examines a few guarantees made by Kennedy in 1963 to finance psychological well-being administrations in each network. Kennedy marked a bill to make upwards of 2000 network wellbeing focuses, there are only 740 today. The insurance agencies may feel a little better about supporting psychological wellness in the event that they were given a few correlations of effective treatment among psychiatry and physical medication. One such correlation given in the article is that 60% of those treated for schizophrenia can be effectively treated, while only 41% of those that have angioplasty can recuperate completely. There is countless intellectually sick that are destitute in light of the fact that theyve gone untreated. They frequently go to unlawful medications to ease there torment and disarray. As I would like to think this issue ought to be tended to rapidly. There are confounded intellectually sick individuals that have been overlooked by society that are wandering the lanes. These individuals can un-purposely carry out awful violations, for example, the man talked about before that pushed the ladies to her demise in the New York metro. The administration shouldnt be the main ones considered liable for fixing this issue, insurance agencies that make a huge number of dollars could bear to give equivalent physical and mental inclusion. In the article it expresses that you would discuss a 6% cost increment which enormous business states as being gigantic. I believe that there is a gigantic level of our populace that isn't appropriately thought about and its a disgrace that it will most likely take some repulsive demonstration submitted by an individual against society that required consideration and didnt get it to achieve change. Clothing regulations EssayREFERENCE Cloud, J.(1999, June 7). Emotional wellness Reform: What it Would Really Take. TIME, Vol.#153 (issue #22), pg#s 49-53 .
Posted by Fabian Schmitz at 9:12 PM
Saturday, July 11, 2020
Writing a Dissertation Can Be Easy If You Follow These TipsIt's almost impossible to write a dissertation without assistance. In fact, without the assistance of a professional in the field, it would be difficult to complete the research in a timely manner. Luckily, that's not all there is to writing a dissertation.Don't practice. This might sound like common sense but you will find that many students do this. The reason for this is that they don't want to read the research.They are unable to put into words the work of research that has taken place. Once this is done, they are left to start writing the final paper. The trick to avoid this problem is to make sure you can visualize your research before you actually do it.Practice. You have to get comfortable with the type of research that is being done. So what I suggest is to get a free domain name that has some sort of information related to your field and start practicing.Make sure you are using the right format for your dissertation . Different universities use a different format when they are writing their dissertation. Make sure you understand the formatting of the dissertation so that you won't have any trouble when you finish it.Writing a dissertation is a great accomplishment. The success of your dissertation depends on a number of factors. You should think about the length of your dissertation as well as the relevance of the work. Your advisor will also be able to help you with how to write a dissertation that is short and concise and yet on point.You should always make sure that your dissertation is based on solid research. It's no use trying to rewrite your dissertation. However, what you can do is to go back and change something that you felt needed to be changed. This way you will learn from your mistakes, make sure that you understand the field and see how your information compares to what others have written about.It's never a good idea to try to guess what other people have written about. It's much better to just get it from a reliable source. You can also look at the front page of a college or university's library.
Posted by Fabian Schmitz at 6:57 PM
Thursday, July 2, 2020
Women in Management This paper looks at the issue of women in management within the financial services sector, focusing on high street banks in the United Kingdom, in the context of addressing the issue of gender discrimination within top management. This is done by looking at past and present published papers that revolve around the subject matter under a theoretical hypothesis. The theoretical hypothesis, which is based on published material on women in management, is used to explain the issues surrounding women in management. Three high street banks were assessed as case studies to identify the issue of gender discrimination within UK banks. The outcomes are also categorised under specific themes. Finally a critical review of matches and mismatches is used to compare and contrast similarities between the theoretical hypothesis and the empirical evidence gathered for this paper. Chapter 1: The Concept of Women In Management Since the end of the Second World War, organisations all over the world have been slow to recognize the importance of women in the development and building of strong solid leadership from within. This has raised serious issues with regard to top management particularly within the financial services sectors, being male dominated, not allowing women into positions of authority, or top management. Although, organisations all over the world have moved on since then, and there have been positive results so far in todays modern day society, however the relative percentage of women in relation to men in top management positions still remains unsolved. In the United Kingdom, certain sectors seem to have made substantial progress with regard to addressing these issues, e.g. the financial sectors, and the health and social services. However, this is not the case across the whole spectrum of job sectors. E.g. the military, production services, distribution, Information and communication technology, and agriculture. Aims and Objectives The aim of this paper is to address the issue of top management, which is predominantly male dominated, within the financial services sector allowing and encouraging women to progress into management positions in their field of expertise. I.e. Understanding the problems associated with women breaking through the glass ceiling into top management within the financial services sector. The objective of this research is to first provide a detailed analysis of the theoretical aspects that women face when it comes to stepping into management positions within banks in the United Kingdom. Secondly, to understand the processes and mechanisms that are inherent within financial organisations that slowdown the pace of women into management positions. Thirdly, to highlight the issue of gender discrimination associated with the latter mentioned. Lastly, I will critically appraise the validity of published material so far covering women in management in the context of equal opportunity policies and flexible work patterns. Chapter 2: Existing Literature Reviewed Over the past 50 years gender inequalities i.e. women in management, particularly within the UK banking sector has been the subject of bureaucratic scrutiny to a certain degree. For example Crompton (1989)states that UK banks have increasingly become the major employers of female labour. However, women in banks have not historically had the same career opportunities as men, for a variety of reasons, ranging from deliberate male exclusion practices to the broken and often short-term nature of many womens work histories. Additionally, the contrast between the experiences of men and women in the same occupation is used to question the conventional view of occupational class analysis, where the (male) occupational structure is treated as if it were the class structure. Rutherfords (1999) case study of banking, also illustrates how the discourses of gendered biological and psychological difference might be used to justify the scarcity of women in management grades and in so doing reproduce the status quo of male domination. After all, if women were not suited to management in banking what would be the point of creating policies to attempt to improve their representation there? Thus jobs become infused with stereotyped characteristics, which are believed to be linked to gender, race (Liff and Dickens, 2000) and to some extent age. Alvesson and Billing (1997) talks about the pressures for homogeneity and cultural competent behaviour. This involves individuals, consciously or unconsciously, conforming and adapting to organisational norms in order to fit in or progress their careers, for example by adopting the expected and desired language, work style, appearance and so on. The demand for cultural competence reinforces and reproduces the dominant, from which those who do not comply, or conform, remain excluded. Collin son (1990) argues about the cultural assumptions underlying male managers stereotypes of male and female attributes. He states that when evaluating male candidates, involvement in sport was a definite advantage, whereas females sporting achievements we reread as indicative of a very narrow existence. Another example was behaviour of men which was described as pushy when exhibited by female candidate and as showing initiative when a male candidate was involved. Thus women were less likely to be recruited to what were viewed as gender-incongruent jobs. It must also be recognised that policy approaches, which focus on certain groups of employees most typically women and ethnic minorities, tend to engender employee resentment (Cockburn, 1991; Miller and Rowney, 1999). Webb (1997) adds that ironically the radical feminist agenda, which asserts womens differences from men and their potential for creating a better world, had been adapted to the concerns of liberal feminism with providing rationale for the promotion of women in management, on the grounds that womens nurturing capacities contribute to the diversity needed by post-modern organisations. Webb (1997) goes on to state that we need to move beyond the ultimately limiting debate about whether women are the same as or different from men to a renewed concern with the material conditions of womens lives and with the construction of equality initiatives which address the continuing exclusion of many women from adequate standards of living. Rees (1998) argues that relative strenuous efforts to tackle discrimination and disadvantage within the organisation are hampered by structural inequalities at societal level, in particular the interrelationship between education, training and employment. The continued existence of social inequalities could be said to indicate that as a society we are not yet ready to value gender diversity, or ethnic diversity, adopting the language will not make it happen. However, this should not be used as an excuse for organisational inertia or fatalism. Businesses have social responsibilities (one of these is to treat employees fairly) and they also have a need for social legitimacy in order to survive in the longer term (Miller and Rowney, 1999). This would point to need for organisations to value workforce diversity, irrespective of the purchase of short-term solutions. Sisson (1995) also adds that the problem with regard to women in management within the UK banking industry is that most organisations are predominantly concerned with the bottom line, short-term profitability and this orientation militates against long-term agendas. This renders it all the more important that the retrograde step of abandoning or neglecting equal opportunity policy should be avoided. Dickens (1994) argues that there is not a business case but a series of business rationales that are contingent. Organizational and managerial receptiveness to them is uneven, and they lead to only selective action. He goes on to state that the business case carrot shares a similar weakness to the legal compliance stick. Calls for action beyond the individual organisation in a multi-pronged approach requiring state action, in which equality legislation and business case rationales each have apart to play. Chapter 3: Research Approach and Methodology Employed Research Approach The research approach will be carried out using the positivist case research approach. According to Cavite (1996), positivist epistemology tries to understand a social setting by identifying individual components of a phenomenon and explains the phenomenon in terms of constructs and relationships between constructs. The theoretical constructs describing the phenomenon are considered to be distinct from empirical reality. Hence, empirical observations can be used to test theory. This looks at the world as external and objective. Positivism employs four major research evaluation criteria: a good research should make controlled observations, should be able to be replicated should be generalizable and should use formal logic. Under positivism, case research findings are not statistically generalizable to a population, as the case or cases cannot be considered representative of a population, however, case research can claim theoretical generalizability. This will also include comparing, contrasting and critically evaluating past and present papers, articles, journals, and established theories that have been published on the subject matter. Methodology Employed Multiple-Case Study Design This project uses the multiple case study method in order to enable analysis of data across cases and relating it to the theoretical perspectives in the available literature of Information systems strategy. This enables the researcher to verify that findings are not merely the result of idiosyncrasies of research setting (Miles andHuberman, 1984). According to Yin (1994), in such a method it is important to use: multiple sources of evidence. Due to the time constraint attached with this paper, only three case studies of Women in management within the UK banking sector were gathered. The appropriate number of cases depends, firstly, on how much is known about the phenomenon after studying a case and secondly, on how much new information is likely to emerge from studying further cases(Eisenhardt, 1997). The paper provides three case studies of UK high street banks namely HSBC, NatWest Bank, and Lloyds TSB. Comparing and contrasting the roles of the women who are in the top management in these banks. Qualitative Data Cavite (1996) states that qualitative investigation refers to distilling meaning and understanding from a phenomenon and is not primarily concerned with measuring and quantification of the phenomenon. Direct and in-depth knowledge of a research setting are necessary to achieve contextual understanding. Hence, qualitative methods are associated with face-to-face contact with persons in the research setting, with verbal data being gathered. Qualitative data can be collected in a number of forms. One major form of qualitative evidence is interviews, which may be recorded and later transcribed. Qualitative data are rich, full, holistic real their face validity seems impeachable; they preserve chronological flow where that is important. In spite of the above mentioned, qualitative data have weaknesses (Miles1979; Miles and Huberman, 1984). Collecting and analysing data is time-consuming and demanding. In addition, data analysis is not easy, as qualitative data analysis methods are not well established. Recognised rules of logic can be applied to verbal data in order to make sense of the evidence and to formally analyse the data. Rubin and Rubin (1995) state that it is most desirable to disclose the identities of both the case and the individuals interviewed because, The reader is able to recall any other previous information he or she may have learned about the same case from previous research or other sources in reading and interpreting the case report. The entire case can be reviewed more readily, so that footnotes and citations can be checked, if necessary, and appropriate criticisms can be raised about the published case. Nevertheless, there are some occasions when anonymity is necessary. The most common rationale is that when the case study has been on controversial topic, anonymity serves to protect the real case and its real participants. The second reason is that the issuance of the final case report may affect the subsequent actions of those that were studied. In the case of this paper, the positions of the participants within the organisations interviewed are mentioned. However, anonymity is adopted to protect the Identities of the participants and the real case. Why? Because the issue of women in management within Banks in the UK has been a long standing problem, in which revealing their names could hinder future revelations on their part and their jobs. The remainder of this paper proceeds as follows: Chapter 4: Theoretical Hypothesis on Women in Management Chapter 5: Empirical Analysis (Three Banks) Chapter 6: Comparing and contrasting Theoretical Hypothesis and Empirical Analysis Chapter 7: Summary and Conclusion. Chapter 4: Theoretical Hypothesis of Women In Management In order to have a clear understanding of women in management, we will first need to identify the meaning attached to this phenomenon. Since the mid 1990s, womens representation amongst executives has doubled and amongst company directors it has tripled. At the same time there has been an overall increase in women working in management jobs. However, women still comprise less than a quarter of executives and only one in ten company directors. The glass ceiling, the situation where women can see but not reach higher level jobs and so are prevented from progressing in their careers, appears still to exist in many organisations. This is what led to the creation of the terminology women in management. Several key factors account for the continuing low representation of women in management. Firstly, like most other occupations, there is a tendency for some types of management jobs to be associated with either women or men. For example, whilst women are comparatively well represented in personnel and the public sector, men still predominate in production management and Information and communication technology. Secondly, opportunities to work part-time are limited, with only six present of managers and senior officials employed part-time. Although it may be difficult to carry out some management functions on a part-time basis, there are still far too few opportunities for flexible working at senior levels in organisations. With this in mind, we can now move on to discuss the theoretical perspectives of women in management. There are several already established theoretical perspectives that have been used to gather a better understanding of this issue, however, the ones used in this paper are: 1) Issues and problems facing women reaching the top (manager) 2) Why so few women reaching the top? 3) Why are women workers still going cheap? 4) What causes the gender pay gap? 5) Have women achieved equality in the UK banking industry? 4.1 Issues and problems facing women reaching the top (manager) Several factors account for the continuing low representation of women reaching the top. One of the key issues is that women consider family obligations and the predominance of male values in corporate culture to be the main obstacles to career advancement for them. The nature of the obstacles blocking womens progress to higher management varies, however, from those encountered at lower levels. Higher ranking female bank managers seem to experience discrimination to a greater extent, both on terms of structural and cultural barriers, where insufficient personal contacts and dominance of male values adversely affect their advancement. The difficulties women face in reaching the top is also reflected in the higher levels of education and effort often demanded of them. The hurdles facing women aspiring to management jobs can be so formidable that they sometimes abandon efforts to make it to the top of large firms. They often take their energy and know-how to smaller and more flexible companies or set up their own businesses. Another principal constraint on the level and type of labour market participation of women is the responsibility they carry for raising children and performing household tasks. An important feature of professional and especially managerial work is the extended working hours that seem to be required to gain recognition and eventual promotion. It can be practically impossible to reconcile the long hours often required of management staff with the amount of time needed to care for a home and children, not to mention care of the elderly. Yet the availability of part-time managerial work varies across organisations. Women who desire both a family and a career often juggle heavy responsibilities in both domains. Those who opt for part-time work early in their careers may find their advancement hampered, even after a return to full-time employment, since their male counterparts will have invested heavily in career building during the same period. 4.2 Why so few women reaching the top? Few women gain access to the highest positions as executive heads of organizations and, despite some improvements, many would claim that the pace of change is still far too slow given the large number of qualified women in the labour market today. Where figures are available (ILO data, 2002), they show women holding from 1 present to 5percent of top executive positions. While it must be acknowledged that time is still needed for women at junior and middle management levels(those in the pipeline) to move into executive positions, the fact still remains that women are not moving quickly enough nor insufficient numbers into line or strategic positions. Yet this factories crucial for enlarging the pool of women aspiring to senior positions and for building a critical mass of senior women for networking and providing role models for those down the line. Speeding up womens movement towards the top requires that recruitment and promotion methods be objective and fair. Above all, there has to be awareness and commitment from directors of companies as to the benefits for their organizations from promoting women to high-level managerial positions. Women seem to experience the most difficulty in obtaining executive jobs in large corporations, even though they often have greater opportunities at junior and middle management levels in these same corporations. Another reason for this purge is the educational attainment required for top management positions. Evidence provided byte Equal opportunities Commission in the United Kingdom suggest that, in some cases women do not have the educational qualifications to get into management positions, and even when that is not the case, they still do find it hard to break into management, due to the fact that its predominantly male dominated. Another reason is that few senior women are in the so called line positions that involve profit and loss or revenue generating responsibilities, and which are critical for advancement to the highest level. Additionally, in the United Kingdom, the share of women among financial managers rose from 11 present to 17percent in the 1980s and still increasing, although they are still outnumbered by men in top management positions in the 21st century. 4.3 Why are women workers still going cheap? Much of womens work has historically tended to be undervalued or unrecognized. While the United Nations system and governments are making more systematic efforts to value and account for womens work in national statistics, research on women in management is a relatively new field and comparisons over time and across countries are limited. This is further made complicated by the range of definitions employed and the non-availability of statistics for different countries overtime. Under a report provided by the United Nations in 1996 called the Human development report, it states that no society treats its women as well as men. A gender related development index was created to record achievements and monitor progress. This is based on life expectancy, educational attainment and income, but adjusts the latter mentioned for gender equality. They noted that life expectancy rates are positively affected by care in different forms, such as social support and social relationships. For example, unmarried adults have higher mortality rates than married ones and, according to them, children in a caring environment fare better in terms of health than those who lack this attention. It is not only the weak and sick that need care to prosper; even the healthiest of adults need a certain amount of care. A deficit in care services not only destroys human development, but it also undermines economic growth. That these factors are overlooked has considerable implications for gender equality, as women still carry the main responsibility for care. Gender discrimination is perpetuated through the lack of value placed on womens caring role in society. As managers, women are affected byte common assumption that in the event of building families they will bear the main burden of responsibility arising out of this. Thus, there is not the same degree of investment in women. They are less likely to receive the same encouragement or career advice through mentoring as men. Another important factor is that in some countries equal opportunity policies tend to be established within organizations, however, in some countries they are not strictly adhered to. In the Ukase scheme known as Opportunity 2000 was launched in 2000. Its member included 300 organizations ranging from the financial services to the educational departments. They agreed to increase the number of women into management positions, and between 1994 to 2000, womens share of management positions increased from 25 present to 35 present. Therefore, one can say although women are still going cheap in certain jobs in other parts of the world this is not the case universally. 4.4 What causes the gender pay gap? A difference in management positions does tend to contribute to earnings differentials. Although rates of pay may be similar, actual earnings can vary because of the different salary packages offered to managers, which provide various fringe benefits and access to certain schemes for boosting bonuses. Earnings gaps may also reflect differences in seniority and concentration of women in low-paid managerial sub-groups. Additionally, certain jobs tend to be affiliated with men and to women, i.e. productions and manufacturing jobs tend to be affiliated with men, while nursing, and household jobs tend to be affiliated with women, this contributes to the pay gap between men and women. Within the Banking sector in the United Kingdom, there has been an increase of the number of women into both middle and top management. However, the positions they tend to head are not profit-making positions or revenue generating positions, which are positions of higher pay and responsibility. They tend to be based within the retail, customer services, and bookkeeping departments, which are areas of significance to the organization, but are of less repute. 4.5 Have women achieved equality in the UK banking industry? In the area of finance, women have certainly increased their share of management positions, although at a varying pace. In the United Kingdom, the share of women among financial managers rose from 11 present to 17 present during the 1980s and at the turn of the century increased to 25 present. While women have captured an ever-increasing share of the labour market, improvements in the quality of womens jobs have not kept pace. This is reflected in the smaller representation of women in management positions, particularly in the private sector, and their virtual absence from most senior jobs, i.e. Directorships, or Presidents of Banks. Wage differentials in male and female managerial jobs stem from the reality that even when women hold management jobs, they are often in less strategic lower-paying areas oaf companys operations. They are also linked to the fact that women managers tend to be younger on average, as most senior jobs tend to be dominated by older men. Despite the persistent inequalities at managerial level, the continuous entry of women into higher-level jobs is being addressed; however, they still remain under-represented in senior management. With few exceptions, the main challenge appears tube the sheer slowness in the in the progress of women into senior leadership positions in organizations, which suggests that discrimination is greatest where the most power is exercised. However, the growth in entrepreneurship and increasing numbers of women running their own businesses, both large and small, heralds a different future for societies. The economic power gained by women will play a key role in the struggle to sweep aside gender inequalities in all walks of life in which the UK banking sector is no exception. Chapter 5: Empirical Analysis In this chapter I present (3)case descriptions from my research on Women in management within the Banking Sector. The descriptions are organised in terms of the following headings; Continuity and Change in Womens twentieth century in comparison to now experience, the position of women in the financial industry in general, the position of women in the UK banking sector, the changing role of women in the UK banking sector, pay differentials, women broken through glass ceiling, employment law and maternity right, and balancing work and family responsibilities. Due to the short timespan to collect data and incorporate to this paper I have been limited to three UK high street banks. The names of the individuals interviewed are not mentioned to protect confidentiality. It must be said that there are some differences in the both the quality and quantity of data available between the cases described, but in each case there is sufficient data for comparability across the features mentioned above. Women managers or the most senior of positions with regard to women in the three high street banks are analysed to address the issue of women in management. See Appendix A for the questions used. All interviews lasted approximately 40 minutes. 5.1 Case Study 1: Natwest Bank Continuity and Change in Womens twentieth century in comparison to now experience The Woman interviewed was the manager of the branch. She is responsible for 25 people in the branch. She argues that in the past there were no female managers, most women, were household wives and lacked career progression. She believes that a lot has changed over the past 20 years and that within the bank a lot of progress has been made with regard to women into management positions. Additionally, she states that there is a continuing need to have women in management positions because it depicts the bank as being an equal opportunities bank. The position of women in the financial industry in general She argues that they are a lot more women in Finance ministries, central banks, and banking supervisory agencies, which are among the most important political institutions with regard to the coordination and regulation of the financial system than the case maybe in the past. The position of women in UK banking sector She states that although there has been a huge increase in the number of women in management positions within the bank, relative to male managers, it is small percentage that are in this category compared to over 50 years ago. The changing role of women in the UK banking sector She believes that the role of women in the bank has changed over the years. In the past women within the bank were more concentrated in the retail department, but more and more women are going into the trading of stocks and products which are revenue generating departments within the bank. Pay Differential She states categorically, that she is quite happy and content with how much she is being paid and comparing herself to her male counterpart sat other branches of the bank, there isnt a difference with regard other pay package (its the same). Women broken through glass ceiling She believes that within NatWest bank the case of women breaking through the glass ceiling is not an issue. As far as she is concerned if you have the right qualifications and attributes, you will make it through regardless of gender differences. Employment law and Maternity right She argues that there are policies within the bank that ensures equal opportunities for both male and female employees to get into top management. And that women are encouraged to take maternity leave if needs be, and when they are ready to come back to their previous position the job would still be there. Flexible part-time work is available for those who fall under this category she says. Balancing work and Family For the hours she works, it could affect family life being the manager of the branch, however, for the top directors within the bank the want staff to have a good work and family life balance. They do encourage women, if they need to go out on maternity leave and come back to their previous job. 5.2 Case Study 2: Hong-Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Continuity and Change in Womens twentieth century in comparison to now experience The Woman interviewed was the branch counsellor (Customer services/accounts); she is the most senior woman (retail). She is responsible for 5 people. She argues that in the Bank there were few female managers compared to their male counterparts. Although she believes a lot has changed over the years with regard to women getting into management positions, she states that due to the lack of proper qualifications and starting a family, women have not in general been able to move into management positions. The position of women in financial industry in general She argues that there are not enough women in the financial industry. She acknowledges that there have been improvements but that there is still barrier. The position of women in the UK banking sector She believes that only the determined ones (women) get through. However, from heron knowledge of the bank, there are not a lot of women in top management positions. The changing role of women in the UK banking sector The branch counsellor states that when a woman says she works in a bank it would be depicted that she works as a secretary. This is due to the lack of qualifications and top management being male dominated, the role of women within the bank has remained static. Pay Differential She states that there are certain grades within the bank and each and every person is categorised into one of those grades. The salary band is applied in that manner. She states that for the job responsibilities, she is quite content and happy with what she is being paid, however there is still need for improvement. Women broken through glass ceiling She argues that there is a glass ceiling within the bank and women can only go so far. She adds that women tend to leave to have children and look after the home. Also, she says that there are gender diversity policies within the bank, but they are not adhered to from top management. Employment law and maternity right Within the bank there is policy that allows for part-time flexible work patterns. Legally, they have to keep the position for you, if for example you left to have baby. Personally she wont give up her job because she has a baby, she would hope to return and get it back in due course. Balancing work and family She suggests that staff within the bank have the option to balance family and work, if they wanted to take leave and come back there is a policy in the bank that states that top management would need to accommodate this. 5.3 Case Study 3: Lloyds TSB The woman interviewed was the branch manager and majority of what she had to say (98%) in relation to the questions asked tallied with what the branch manager at NatWest bank stated. The case studies mentioned in the above sections provides much needed evidence of the way women in management, particularly within the Banking sector are treated. This includes organizational policies which top management need to adhere to for gender diversity. Reasons for this stem from the fact that different methodologies and approach are regarded as best practice by top management in financial organisations, than one would anticipate. Therefore, it is notable that within two of the organisations mentioned, women in management is not an issue, while just one HSBC claims that there is an issue which needs to be addressed. Chapter 6: Critical Analysis of Theoretical Hypothesis and Empirical Evidence The critical analysis in this chapter covers all aspects relating to the theoretical hypothesis of women in management from published books and articles, and the empirical evidence presented in the previous chapter. An analysis is made as to whether there is any consistency from the published material so far gathered and the empirical evidence presented. One could say that there are certain consistencies with regard to the theory presented and the evidence gathered and a number of inconsistencies. For example, within HSBC bank, the fact that there Isa low representation of women in top management accounts for the fact that there are no female role models within the bank for women to look up to. Also, the fact that education plays an important role in reaching top management, the Branch manager at HSBC was right, in saying lack of qualifications played a part in women reaching top management positions. Additionally, if pregnant, women would need to take maternity leave to have a child. This correlates with why few women reach the top. All the women acknowledge that there has been progress made with regard to more women reaching top management however; they state that the progress is slow. This is due to certain types of jobs affiliated to women and men. Most women managers can be found in less strategic jobs(i.e. retail positions) with less pay; comparing with the jobs which are male dominated, who tend to be in more profit generating positions and hence better pay. From the perspective of the being a branch manager two of the women felt content with what they were being paid, which does not correlate with the theoretical hypothesis of a gender pay gap. Lastly, in relation to women breaking through the glass ceiling, the theoretical hypothesis on this does correlate with what the highest-ranking female at HSBC said i.e. there is a problem with regard to women reaching the top. While at the other two banks, they claim it is not an issue. Although, one has used the theoretical hypothesis so far published and analysed matches or mismatches with regard to the three high street banks, there is no guarantee that in a few years time, the same situation with the three women at the banks mentioned, would still be the case. People change, policies change and we as human beings are constantly evolving, so one should take this as a trend overtime, rather than as fact. Summary and Conclusion This paper has looked at past and present published paper on Women in Management particularly within the financial services sector in the UK. Theoretical hypothesis such as issues and problems facing women reaching the top, why so few women reaching the top, why are women workers still going cheap, what causes gender pay gap, and have women achieved equality in UK banking industry are used to categorize published facts about the subject matter. We have used a positivist approach for the case study design method to carry out case study analysis. Qualitative data analysis is the method used to gather empirical evidence in this paper. Three high street banks in the United Kingdom, is used as case studies to gather empirical evidence on women in management. The information gathered was categorized under the following headings, continuity and change in womens twentieth century in comparison to now experience, the position of women in the financial industry in general, the position of women in the UK banking sector, the changing role of women in the UK banking sector, pay differential, women broken through glass ceiling, employment law and maternity right, and balancing work and family. Finally, an analysis of both the theoretical hypothesis and the empirical evidence gathered were critically analysed to identify any matches or mismatches between the latter mentioned. Women in management is a very new topic in the 21stcentury. We as humans are constantly evolving and new issues are always being raised; it is therefore worthwhile to state that the information provided in this paper is bound to change in a few years within the banks mentioned. However, from a critical perspective we can see that the theoretical hypothesis presented here is one that needs further in-depth investigation ranging from cultural differences to inbuilt norms within these banks, which indirectly affect women being able to progress in top management. This will obviously be the responsibility of various government bodies and top management within these banks to be able to develop sound policies that would need to be strictly adhered to in order to tackle such an issue. Putting all this in mind there are theoretical issues that would need to be formally developed with accuracy within the concept of women in management. Concepts such as Equal employment policies, gender review pay packages across financial banks, discriminatory regulatory, gender protection policies, and the encouragement of women to attain higher educational qualifications are concepts that both the government and executive management need to look at more closely in order to derive the potential and talent that women across the world have that would eventually lead to the progress and goals of banks or any organisation as a whole.
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Wednesday, May 20, 2020
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